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Initially smithsonite, also known as Calamine ore of zinc, was melted in a crucible along with copper ore and the zinc fumes melded with the copper to produce a rudimentary compound called Calamine brass.
Even though this brass was difficult to make, the ancient metalworkers did manufacture the shiny substance and it quickly supplanted the alloy of copper and tin that was known as bronze because it is much less brittle and much harder - so it did not break so easily in battle.
The raised equator flange denotes where the two halves of the bell were pressed together to make the sphere.
Most have a narrow slit with a small hole at either end that extends around the lower half of the bell.
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc that was first actively made and used late in the first millennium BC in the Near East, after it had been accidently discovered in Mesopotamia about a thousand years before that time.
During that two hundred plus year period, many thousands of these little noise makers were traded to the American natives and if you are really lucky and diligent in your artifact hunting, you just might be able to find, in a plowed agricultural field, one or maybe more than one, of these little Indian brass hawk bells. The Spaniards, in turn, gave the natives glass beads and small bells.But it took the Europeans over a hundred years to begin seriously exploring the large land mass that was near the island – the land mass that would become the United States.The date of October 12, 1492 was very notable, for that was the day the ships of the initial Christopher Columbus voyage anchored off the island that was to be named San Salvador or as the local Taino Indians called it, Guanahani which would translate as Iguana.
The expedition commander wrote in his log book that natives of the island rowed their canoes out to his vessels and brought parrots, cotton threads and spears as gifts for the foreigners.As the European explorers, in modern-day United States, began to move inland from the coastal regions early in the seventeenth century AD, they discovered the natives were willing to exchange items they considered to be of little value, animal furs and skins and land, for the metal tools and shiny knickknacks the English, French and Spanish brought with them.