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The tysyatsky, or "thousandman", originally the head of the town militia but later a commercial and judicial official, was also elected by the Veche.Another important local official was the Archbishop of Novgorod who shared power with the boyars.At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post which they named Gutagard (also known as Gotenhof).
It was in Novgorod that the Novgorod Codex, the oldest Slavic book written north of Bulgaria, and the oldest inscription in a Finnic language (Birch bark letter no. Some of the most ancient Russian chronicles (Novgorod First Chronicle) were written in the scriptorium of the archbishops who also promoted iconography and patronized church construction.
Sophia Cathedral, more accurately translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day.
In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital from enemies at home.
No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, the city's community had erected in his memory Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod.
The Gotland town of Visby functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League.
Novgorod's size as well as its political, economic, and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus'.