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This trend occurs because the wavelengths of visible light absorbed by the halogens increase down the group (though astatine may not conform to it, depending on how metallic it turns out to be).Elemental iodine is slightly soluble in water, with one gram dissolving in 3450 ml at 20 °C and 1280 ml at 50 °C; potassium iodide may be added to increase solubility via formation of triiodide ions, among other polyiodides.On 29 November 1813, Desormes and Clément made Courtois' discovery public.They described the substance to a meeting of the Imperial Institute of France.To isolate the sodium carbonate, seaweed was burned and the ash washed with water.The remaining waste was destroyed by adding sulfuric acid.

(The scarce and fugitive fifth halogen, the radioactive astatine, is not well-studied due to its expense and inaccessibility in large quantities, but appears to show various unusual properties due to relativistic effects.) Iodine has an electron configuration of [Kr]4d, with the seven electrons in the fifth and outermost shell being its valence electrons.

The dominant producers of iodine today are Chile and Japan.

Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition.

Iodine is also used as a catalyst in the industrial production of acetic acid and some polymers.

who was born to a manufacturer of saltpeter (an essential component of gunpowder).

The elemental form was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811.